as they mature. They might group together to form the tissues of the stomach and eventually the entire digestive system. Humans have hundreds of different cell types. Cells have problems functioning when they get too big. It can be viewed as an enclosed vessel, within which innumerable chemical reactions take place simultaneously. Cells can be thought of as building blocks of organisms. Specialized organelles are a characteristic of cells of organisms known as eukaryotes. Cells hold a variety of pieces and each cell type has a different purpose. The cytosol contains an organized framework of fibrous molecules that constitute the cytoskeleton, which gives a cell its shape, enables organelles to move within the cell, and provides a mechanism by which the cell itself can move.
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Special emphasis is given in this article to animal cells, with some discussion of the energy-synthesizing processes and extracellular components peculiar to plants. Each cell contains only one nucleus, whereas other types of organelles are present in multiple copies in the cellular contents, or cytoplasm. By dividing responsibilities among different groups of cells, it is easier for an organism to survive and grow. The trillions of cells in your body make your way of life possible. In other words, a molecule chemically transformed by one catalyst serves as the starting material, or substrate, of a second catalyst and. (For detailed discussion of the biochemistry of plant cells, see photosynthesis. Some organisms are composed of a single cell. In a multicellular organism, cells become specialized to perform different functions through the process of differentiation. Unlike the ingested molecules, catalysts are not chemically altered themselves during the reaction, allowing one catalyst to regulate a specific chemical reaction in many molecules. Also, if you were only one cell you couldn't have a nervous system, no muscles for movement, and using the internet would be out of the question. Organelles include mitochondria, which are responsible for the energy transactions necessary for cell survival; lysosomes, which digest unwanted materials within the cell; and the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, which play important roles in the internal organization of the cell by synthesizing selected molecules. Cells of humans typically have a mass 400,000 times larger than the mass of a single mycoplasma bacterium, but even human cells are only about 20 m across.
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