Rovigo, Vercelli, Modena, Sandaniele del Friuli, and other small centers. As a result they were persecuted by the Byzantines when a few decades later they conquered Italy. However, at the hour of greatest danger, many discovered that the greater part of the Italian people was willing to help the persecuted for humanitarian reasons alone, despite the heavy penalties that they risked by their actions. Jewish cultural and spiritual life did not suffer because of these vicissitudes. Up until 1997 the Quebec education system was also separated, with Protestant and Catholic school boards. The Italian rite in Rome and in the northern communities possesses its own tradition of biblical cantillation in the reading of the parashah, the haftarah (including a special "festive" intonation of the haftarah and in the sung rendition of the psalms. In Saskatchewan and Ontario, members of the minority faith may choose to be supporters of the public school system, notwithstanding their faith.
An early and audio visual essay interesting musical transcription is the "Twelve Biblical Intonations" of the Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews of Venice. This was significant, as Catholic-Protestant violence in England and Ireland had been nearly constant since the beginning of the English Reformation. An Israeli-Palestinian meeting was held in 1989 by the Milan Center for Peace in the Middle East. Bonfil ( Gli ebrei in Italia nell'epoca del Rinascimento 1991) urged Jewish historians to renounce harmonistic interpretation and to study Jewish history "on its own terms that is by defining the social status of Jews in Renaissance Italy, and then reconstructing their unique Jewish experience. Of the approximately 2,000 Jews who fought against the German and Fascist forces in the ranks of the partisans, more than 100 fell in battle and five won the highest medals for bravery. Meanwhile, the majority of Italian leftists continued to support the Palestinian cause.